Category Archives: Healthcare Technology

Quit Beating A Dead Horse (and wasting money): The Day of the Pharma Rep is Done

As I sit behind a computer in my office today at the Physician’s “workstation”, I am baffled at the steady flow of Pharmaceutical representatives that flow into our office on a daily basis. Each rep comes in with a fancy glossy print detailing the data concerning their particular drug. My office is busy—patients are coming in and out and medical assistants are busy checking vitals and verifying medications (and of course, entering data into the computer system EMR). Yet the reps come in and stand at the workstation until someone acknowledges them. They stand, and stand—often distracting clinical staff. These reps are given a quota of “visits” they must make by their superiors. Many times they will arrive with their direct supervisor in tow—they are evaluated by the relationship they may (or may not have) with a group of physicians. But my time with each and every patient I see is limited due to the increased electronic medical record work that I must do—I feel bad for the reps (it is not their fault that they are placed in this role)—but Do I really have time to stop the endless flow of clinical work to speak to them? Does a Pharma rep actually provide any real value to me or to my patients? Would a “detail” presentation by any rep change my practice?

The Days of Yore

In the past, pharma reps were a source of “samples” that I could provide to my poorer patients who could not afford their meds. This was a real value—I depended on reps to provide these medications for my patients. In the days of print only access to journals, I may not have been as current with the medical literature. Reps would often come in and discuss breaking trial news that I had not yet had time to read about. Often they would discuss upcoming trials and plans for the future. We would have spirited “academic” debates over drugs, trial design and outcomes or endpoints. When you were unable to attend scientific meetings, the pharma rep would often be able to summarize the latest trials after they were released.

Now, my institution no longer allows “samples” to be left, and honestly, if I need a drug rep to share the latest data with me then I am not doing my job as a physician. Online access to immediate data from trials upon their release makes “keeping current” much easier. Social Media and other digital tools make it possible to attend national academic meetings such as the American Heart Association annual scientific session or the American College of Cardiology meetings allow everyone to be virtually present for ground breaking presentations of Late Breaking Clinical Trials.

Don’t get me wrong, there is nothing wrong with the people who choose to be pharma reps—many are smart, classy, well-meaning folks. However, there is a lot wrong with the antiquated pharma rep sales model in today’s world. Modern technology and easy access to data allows physicians to keep up with the latest clinical trials. Pharmaceutical detailing by reps is not very helpful—it is scripted and based solely on what the FDA allows them to say (think on label vs off label). Reps are not allowed to talk about upcoming trials or discuss any off label applications.

What’s the Answer?

Drug prices in the United States are far too high. Pharma will argue (rightfully so) that the costs of research and development (as well as marketing) drive those costs. However, I think that there are ways to lower costs without sacrificing R and D. I would argue that a restructuring of the pharma “sales force” would save significant dollars. I would also argue that making the FDA approval process more streamlined, faster and more agile would also lower costs. The current Congress is working on the “Cures Act” that will address some of the issues associated with the FDA process. Ultimately, I think that pharma must adjust to the way medicine is now practiced. There is no role for the pharmaceutical representative in the office or hospital. These individuals have absolutely no bearing on my choice to prescribe a particular drug and do not contribute to my continuing medical education. Nearly 75% of all Americans go to the internet after a doctor’s visit. Almost all physicians can access the internet immediately from a smartphone or tablet. Pharma should move their marketing and sales efforts to the digital space exclusively. There is no role for in person physician-pharma rep interaction in medicine today. Use these dollars in better ways—fund patient assistance programs, improve treatments and fund clinical trials. Stop spending money on lunches for the office staff and on fancy packaging. Glossy detail cards are simply tossed in the trash as soon as the representative leaves the building. Focus more on patients. The days of the drug rep have come to an end.

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What Would YOU Do With An Extra Second….Better Decide Soon, Its the Day of the Leap Second!

In medicine, I have learned that time is a precious commodity. Too often, when life slips away and patients and families wish they had just a little more time. For physicians, a little more time may make the difference in a patient’s ultimate outcome and sometimes makes the difference between making it home in time for a family dinner. Today, we add ONE second to the international world clock at midnight. Over fifty years ago, world clocks began keeping time with atomic clocks that are governed by oscillations of an atom–which are determined in part by the rotation of the earth. The earth’s rotation is slowing over time, and in order to keep these clocks coordinated with the earth’s rotation, we must add an extra second from time to time.

What Can You Do With An Extra Second?

While a second may seem like an insignificant amount of time, when you are a careful steward of time much can be accomplished quickly. An extra second can have a substantial impact—Here is my list of possible plans for my extra second:

1.  One more chance to say “I love you”

Too often, the pace of the world gets in the way. We forget those most dear to us and allow our daily challenges—both at work and at home- to take center stage. I may use this extra moment in time to make sure that my wife and daughter know exactly how I feel. Time is unwavering and unyielding. Time rarely stops—actually almost never stops—but today we have a brief pause. We must use it wisely and take advantage of the extra “time” with loved ones and remind ourselves that time spent with those we love is precious

2. An opportunity to pause before pressing send on an angry email

In the heat of the moment, many of us have sent a note that we wish we could have back. Email and electronic communication can be unforgiving. Just think if we were able to use the extra second we are given to pause before sending an angry reply. That one second to ponder the implications of an email response may actually save even more time by preventing hurt feelings, damaged relationships and tarnished reputations.

3. A chance to pause and take a breath

Lets’ face it, today’s world moves at a very quick pace. Electronic communication, social media and instant messaging leave each of us with very little down time. Just recently I flew to Italy from New York and was amazed to have active internet service for the entire flight. Rather than unplug and enjoy the beginning of my vacation, I remained connected and engaged through the flight. Much can be gained from taking a few minutes to meditate, unplug and recharge. All of us can benefit from stepping away from the business of a hectic day—just one second may help relieve stress and recharge the mind–Maybe I should use the extra second to take a deep breath, reflect and relax. If a 5minute meditation works, why wouldn’t a 1 second mini meditation work as well?

4. Send a tweet

Social Media is an excellent example of how we can reach out to others—all over the world—in a matter of seconds. We are now more connected than ever. Twitter brings doctors and patients together and makes the world a smaller place. Twitter provides for the brief communication of ideas, exchange of information and socialization all in a moment. One second is all that is needed to send a tweet. At midnight tonight, I may decide to use my extra second to push send and publish a tweet.  Maybe I will connect with a new friend or colleague.  Maybe my tweet will reach a patient suffering with chronic disease and provide them with new hope.  Maybe my tweet will make someone laugh, or (if I am really lucky) make a lonely person smile.

Tonight, we have a rare opportunity to stop time. At midnight we are able to take back time—if only for a second. I have shared a few of my ideas. What will YOU choose to do with it? Time is ticking away–we have to decide soon how to use that extra time.  Midnight will be upon us soon.  How we use it could change a life….or result in time for one more Zzzz…

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Using Twitter and Social Media to Predict Disease: Identifying Risk and Impacting Change

Social media can be an exceptionally useful tool in Medicine.  Many platforms are  ideal for educating colleagues, patients and the community at large about chronic medical conditions as well as spreading the news of new medical innovations and treatments.  Social media platforms such as twitter, YouTube and Facebook (among others) can allow communication between people from different backgrounds and can connect those separated by oceans and thousands of miles all across the world.  While the medical establishment remains skeptical of social media and is often slow to adopt its routine use, it is emerging as an important part of many practices.

Twitter–both in and outside of its use in medicine–certainly has been shown to stir media controversies, influence politics and significantly impact careers (both positively and negatively) due to its ease of use and potential for immediate widespread dissemination.  Beyond the more traditional uses of social media platforms in medicine, a new study has recently been released that shows that one particular platform may actually be useful in predicting disease.  Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania published a study in the January issue of Psychological Science in which they carefully examined the relationship between the “type” of language posted on twitter and an individual’s risk for cardiovascular disease.  Stress, anger and other hostile emotions have long been associated with increased levels of cortisol, catecholamines (stress hormones) and increased inflammation.  These biologic byproducts of anger and hostile emotion have been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events.  Based on this information, researchers set out to identify whether or not the type of language utilized in tweets by a defined population could predict those at greater risk of cardiac events such as heart attack and stroke.  In the study, researchers analysed tweets between 2009 and 1010 using a previously validated emotional dictionary and classified them as to whether they represented anger, stress or other types of emotions.  They found that negative emotion laden tweets–particularly those that expressed anger or hate–were significantly correlated with a higher rate of cardiovascular disease and death.  Conversely, those whose tweets were more positive and optimistic seemed to confer a much lower risk for heart disease and cardiovascular related death.

While this is certainly not a randomized controlled clinical trial–and while we must interpret these results in the context of the study design–it does illustrate an new utility for social media.  As we continue to reach out and engage with patients on social media, our interactions may actually provide more than just communication of ideas–these interactions may produce important clinical data that may provide clues to assist us in the treatment of our patients in the future.  This particular study allowed researchers to predict risk for entire communities based on an analysis of random tweets from those residing in that geographical area.  For primary care physicians, using clues provided from social media interaction may provide insight into both an entire community’s health risk as well as an individual patient’s demeanor and allow for more aggressive screening and treatment for a wide variety of diseases from depression to cardiovascular disease.

Social media use will continue to grow among medical professionals.  I believe that when healthcare providers use all available tools and data in the care of their patients, outcomes will improve.  We must continue to explore the use of social media platforms such as twitter in clinical care and we must continue to examine ways in which the social media behavior of patient populations can predict disease.  I commend the researchers from the University of Pennsylvania for their creativity and vision–we need more creative minds who are willing to use pioneering strategies to improve care for our patients.  We can no longer shy away from social media in medicine–we must embrace it and begin to learn how to use it as a tool to effect change.

 

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Reflecting on Medicine in 2014: Sailing Rough Seas and Finding Uncharted Waters Ahead

As we close out on a tumultuous 2014 in healthcare, many physicians are looking forward to a better and more stable 2015. For most of us, 2014 has been marked by significant change. Many healthcare providers have seen their jobs and their patient care roles transform completely. Physician autonomy has diminished and regulation and mandated electronic paperwork has more than doubled. Many physicians find that they are spending far less time caring for patients and a greater proportion of their available clinical time is now being spent interfacing with a computer—both at work and at home on personal time.

During the last year, we have all been affected by the rollout of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), changes in reimbursement, as well as the implementation of a new billing and coding system (ICD-10). For many of us, it also marked a year of transition to system wide electronic medical record systems such as Epic and the growing pains associated with such a major upheaval in the way in which medicine is practiced.   Many practices have continued the trend of “integration” with larger healthcare systems in order to remain financially viable. The American College of Cardiology estimates that by the end of 2014, nearly 60% of all physician members have integrated with hospital systems and this number is expected to rise even further in 2015—ultimately defining the death of private practice as we know it.

Why have these changes occurred?

Ultimately, I believe that the changes to the way in which healthcare is delivered has come about due to 3 distinct reasons:

 1. Declining Reimbursement

Currently reimbursement continues to fall. Multiple government budgetary “fixes” have led to much uncertainty and instability in medical practices (much like seen in any small business with financial and market instability). In addition, the implementation of the ACA has resulted in the expansion of the Medicaid population in the US—now nearly 1 in 5 Americans is covered under a Medicaid plan. Traditionally, Medicaid plans reimburse at levels 45% less than Medicare (which is already much lower than private insurance payments). While the Obama administration did provide a payment incentive for physicians to accept Medicaid, this incentive expires this week. Many practices are becoming financially non viable as overhead costs are risking to more than 60%. As for the ACA, many exchanges have set prices and negotiated contracts with hospital systems—leaving many practices out of network. Both patients and doctors suffer—longtime relationships are severed due to lack of access to particular physicians.

2. Increasing Administrative/Regulatory Demands

With the implementation of the ICD-10 coding system, now physicians are confronted with more than 85, 000 codes (previously the number of codes was approximately 15,000). In addition, “meaningful use” mandates for payment have resulted in increasing documentation requirements and even more electronic paperwork. In addition, the implementation of new billing and coding systems has required increasing staff (more overhead) as well as intensive physician training. Sadly, the new coding system that has been mandated by the Federal government includes thousands of absurdities such as a code for an “Orca bite” as well as a code for an “injury suffered while water skiing with skis on fire”.

3. Electronic Medical Record Mandates

Federal requirements for the implementation of Electronic Medical Records and electronic prescribing have resulted in several negative impacts on practices. While in theory, the idea of a universal medical record that is portable and accessible to all providers is a noble goal, the current reality in of EMR in the US is troubling. There are several different EMR systems and none of them are standardized—none of them allow for cross talk and communication. Many small practices cannot afford the up front expenditures associated with the purchase and implementation of the EMR (often in the hundreds of thousands of dollars).   In addition, the EMR has slowed productivity for many providers and resulted in more work that must be taken home to complete—not a good thing for physician morale. Finally, and most importantly, the EMR often serves to separate doctor and patient and hinders the development of a doctor-patient relationship. Rather than focusing on the patient and having a conversation during an office visit, many physicians are glued to a computer screen during the encounter.

So, What is next in 2015?

While I have probably painted a bleak picture for Medicine in 2014, it is my hope that we are able to move forward in a more positive way in 2015. I think that there are several very exciting developments that are gaining momentum within medicine and healthcare in general.  Innovation and medical entrepreneurship will be critical in moving healthcare forward in 2015.  Physicians must continue to lobby for the tools and freedoms to provide better patient care experiences for all stakeholders in the healthcare space.

2015 begins with much promise. I am excited to see what we as healthcare professionals will be able to accomplish in the coming year. We must continue to put patients first and strive to provide outstanding care in spite of the obstacles put before us. While 2014 provided challenges, we must rise above the fray and continue to advocate for a better healthcare system in the US today and in the future.

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The Supreme Court Tackles Social Media: The First Amendment and the Rule of Law on the Internet

Social Media and the internet have often been compared to the “Wild West” at times when it comes to the posting of ideas, opinions and beliefs.  There has been very little regulation of what is posted and how it is utilized–which may actually be a good thing.  However, many of us have learned (often the hard way) that many posts on Facebook, Twitter or other social media sites can be taken out of context and misinterpreted by the masses whom the information may not have been intended for.  As physicians who are active on social media we have even more to consider when taking to the internet.  We must be very careful to choose our words for posts wisely and make sure that we leave very little open to interpretation.  We must be mindful of the legal implications of what we say and do online and must be mindful of patient confidentiality issues as well as standards for professional conduct.  Medical boards across the country have developed guidelines for physicians on social media and academic papers have been published on the subject in the Annals of Internal Medicine.  Now, even the nation’s highest court is venturing into the regulation of social media and the intricacies and legal implications of both the subjective and objective interpretation of online posts.

This week, the Supreme Court will be hearing arguments concerning the classification of social media posts as “free speech.” Unlike face to face interactions, cyber interactions can often be interpreted many different ways.  Social media posts can lack context, facial expression and inflection.  Last year a man was sent to prison for posting threats to harm his estranged wife on Facebook.  His posts were absolutely violent and inappropriate in nature and–when simply read out loud–conveyed a sense of intent.  While no crime was committed and no act of violence occurred the defendant was prosecuted and convicted based on a Federal statute involving the criminality of the interstate communication of threats to harm others.  The defendant argued that he was simply writing a “rap” on his Facebook page, expressing his feelings and had no real intention of harming his wife or acting on any of the perceived threats.  However, the interpretation of these comments by the estranged wife and others constituted a criminal offense and resulted in his imprisonment.  While I do not in any way condone this type of online behavior and speech, I do think that it may greatly influence rules the internet “playground” in the future.

Because of its national attention and the fact that arguments will be held in front of the nation’s highest court, this case will have lasting impact on social media and the classification of what is considered free speech in cyberspace.  As outlined in an article published in the New York Times earlier this year, at issue is whether or not posts on social media should be interpreted “objectively” or “subjectively”.  If you interpret the threatening words objectively, you may conclude that the threat is real and that most reasonable individuals would see this as an imminent danger–however, as the counsel for the defendant argues, if you subjectively interpret the words you may be convinced that it was simply the musings of an artist creating a poem or a rap song in response to a life crisis and posed no danger.

Regardless of the outcome of this Supreme Court case, it should serve as a wake up call to all of us who are active on Social Media.  We must continue protect our rights to free speech and expression on the internet.  However, we must also be mindful of our words and how they may be interpreted by others.  Social media is an important tool for all of us to use in order to positively impact others and influence opinion–certainly free speech is protected but we must take care not to abuse these protections.  The individual involved in the criminal case–regardless of intent–showed poor judgement in his public posting and is now dealing with the consequences of his decisions.  However,  I certainly hope that the Supreme Court carefully considers the impact of any opinion they may render in this case. The internet and social media must remain a place for creative expression and innovation–too much regulation and any limits to our right to free speech in cyberspace would have serious negative consequences for all of us.  This case should serve to remind us of one important fact–As physicians and healthcare professionals active on social media, we must hold ourselves to a higher standard of online behavior and continue to remain professional in all that we do online.

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Should We All Die at 75?: Addressing the “Emanuel Principe” in Obamacare

Ezekiel Emanuel, one of the authors of the Affordable Care Act spoke publicly this week about his own desire to “die at 75” in a article published in the Atlantic.  In his piece, he argues that as he ages, he wishes to stop all preventative medical measures and “let nature take its course” as he approaches the age of 75.  This includes screenings such as colonoscopy as well as taking flu shots for the prevention of communicable illness.  While currently in excellent health, Mr Emanuel believes that while death is a loss–”living too long is also a loss.” He argues that the American obsession with living longer results in a larger number of elderly, disabled citizens.  I take significant issue with this position and fear that this is simply the beginning of a new phase in the ACA debate–the rationing of care. From the outset, many of us in healthcare and scholars of healthcare policy have seen Obamacare as a way to promote the rationing healthcare (particularly for the elderly).  While the administration has vehemently denied these claims throughout the legislative and implementation phases of the new healthcare law, it is particularly revealing that one of the principal architects of the law firmly believes that we should not pay attention to life expectancy statistics beyond the age of 75.  Medical advances have made it increasingly possible for seniors to lead healthy, productive exciting lives well into their 80s.  Now, I certainly am not arguing for providing futile care in the setting of terminal illness but–Why then should government (instead of doctors) now have the right to determine how healthcare resources are utilized and who gets what?  Is it all about age?  Do we value the young more than the more “seasoned” citizens? The US healthcare system, while certainly imperfect, offers some of the greatest technological advances in the world and the most significant thing that has always set US healthcare apart form others has been CHOICE.  With Obamacare in place, we now have less choice in our healthcare and very little improvement in access.  This latest article by Mr Emmanuel is no surprise–he has been clear about his belief in allocating health care dollars away from activities which may extend lifespans for Americans.  While, Mr Emmanuel certainly has the RIGHT to refuse care for himself at a certain age neither he (NOR OBAMA or any GOVERNMENT agent) should be able to determine an “acceptable” life span for each of us. Quality of life and health status can be very subjective and care must remain individualized rather than mandated (or withheld) based on actuarial tables or government rationing of resources. Medicine is all about innovation and the development of new technologies.  Through technology we are able to provide longer, more productive lives for our patients.  Our patients are able to retire from a life of work and enjoy spouses, family and friends–well into their 80s and 90s WITH a quality of life.  In fact one of my favorite “golf buddies” is 80 years old and going strong–He can still shoot in the 80s from time to time and never misses a game. In MEDICINE one size does not fit all.  OBAMACARE wants to force a ONE SIZE FITS ALL healthcare system on all of us and as a physician I find this to be unacceptable.  Just as we must cater therapy to individual patients—when (and how) you die must also be catered to each individual patients needs, desires and beliefs. Chronological age such as 75 may be different for different people AND we must respect individual needs.  Medicine is a clearly a science but in many cases the practice of medicine –particularly when making decisions about end of life issues–makes it more of an ART.  The government has no place in dictating ART.  Government should help to preserve and curate art–not regulate and mandate the way in which medical care is delivered to individual patients based on age. Ultimately, left to its own devices, I believe that the ACA will create rationing of care for Americans and we will have two classes of people–those that are wealthy and can afford private care and can pay cash for it–these can make their own healthcare decisions and decide when enough is enough.  The others–most of us–will be lumped into the disaster that IS obamacare and will have little or no choice in how our healthcare is delivered.  Waiting lists for advanced procedures and denials of advanced care for the elderly will be the standard–Just as Mr Emanuel envisioned it when he crafted the law just a few short years ago.

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Engaging Patients with an Apple and Health Apps: Watches Are No Longer Just for Telling Time

Today patients are increasingly connected.  The fastest growing demographic on Twitter is actually those that are between 45 and 65 years old.  Our patients are becoming better informed and are flocking to the internet and to social media to discuss and learn more about disease.  Prevention of disease is becoming more of a priority in our healthcare system as we begin to adjust to the mandates provided for in the Affordable Care Act and physicians are now expecting patients to take a more active role in their healthcare.  In the last 5 years, the concept of the electronic patient has emerged and is becoming more and more prevalent among mainstream patient populations.  These patients often come to office visits armed with information and data collected on the internet and are very technologically savvy.  They embrace new devices and are eager to track health indicators such as blood sugar, blood pressure and heart rate through easy to use phone applications.

This week, Apple intends to announce a new smartwatch and a group of associated health applications.  These innovations will further allow the electronic patient to become more of a mainstream phenomenon.  However, in order to be effective, physicians and other healthcare providers must embrace these technologies and begin to better understand their utility in all patient populations.  According to the Wall Street Journal, the announcement of the new smartwatch is expected to introduce no less than ten new sensors for monitoring health indicators.  Apple has created a data repository that will allow health related information to be stored (with the user’s permission) and directed to healthcare providers if so desired.  This assimilation and collection of massive amounts of health indicator data may be a significant game changer in the fight against chronic disease.  With many patients, compliance with medication or lifestyle modification plans is a challenge.  Many diseases such as hypertension do not produce immediate ill health effects–rather they accumulate over time.  However, if we can clearly demonstrate to patients the positive responses to interventions on a daily (or even hourly basis) they may be much more likely to comply with prescribed treatment plans.  Glancing at a smartwatch and noting a response to exercise or to a completed dose of medication can be a powerful motivational tool.

What if all of the data is collected simply by wearing a watch?

If we make collection and organization of information simple and user friendly, then important information can be transmitted to a physician who can review the data prior to the next face to face office encounter.  Real time feedback can then be provided to the patient and this may ultimately result in increased engagement and may actually spur change in habits or behaviors that are detrimental to a particular patient’s health.  Moreover, according to the WSJ, the new Apple operating system will include a Health icon that will allow for the development of a dashboard with many health indicators that are easily accessible in one place–lab results, heart rate, blood pressure, weight–even calories consumed and burned in a given time period.  The engaged patient can see what they are doing right, what they are doing wrong and can track improvements in habits rather quickly.  Having the data all in one place will likely increase compliance and improve overall health of the adopters of this technology.

What about security of sensitive personal healthcare data?

As with most new advances in medicine, there are significant concerns about data breaches and compliance with the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.  According to a story in the New York Times, Apple is working with application developers as well as the federal government in order to ensure that any stored or tracked healthcare data will remain secure.  Partnerships with application designers, insurance companies, healthcare systems and physicians will be critical to the success of the new Apple smartwatch.  As these new technologies are rolled out and continue to develop, efforts to secure data will continue to evolve.

The development of new and exciting healthcare technologies and applications will continue to bolster the development and of the growing number of electronic patients.  Ultimately, the Apple smartwatch and other soon to be developed health indicator monitors, trackers and data repositories will only serve to further engage both patients and doctors and, in my opinion, significantly improve our ability to intervene EARLY and prevent the terrible consequences of chronic disease.

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